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Enlightenment, Moscow – 1988. World history in ten volumes.

Enlightenment, Moscow – 1988. World history in ten volumes.

The twentieth century was marked by turbulent events that were reflected in the development of social theory. The social sciences – economic theory, jurisprudence, political science, sociology, psychology and other sciences – have made significant progress. And at the philosophical level, the rethinking of the principles of the XIX century continued, which holiday believed in the progress and omnipotence of science.

The shortcomings of civilization, created by science and technology, the inability of science to solve many of the purely human problems have led to the emergence in social philosophy of theories that contained a strong anti-scientific element.

First, the universality of scientific methods and their research effectiveness seemed questionable. Such trends in philosophy as hermeneutics, existentialism, directly pointed to the limitations of scientific and natural methods of cognition, their inability to explore the human world. Such beliefs were based on the statement of the originality of the field of history and culture, where human consciousness and freedom of will operate. The existence in the field of social phenomena of those laws that correlated with the laws of nature was denied. Similar attitudes have been implemented in some social sciences. For example, the school of Annals, whose theorists developed the principles of the neo-Kantian theory of cognition, became popular in history.

Secondly, the multifaceted significance of the consequences of technological progress, the harmfulness and even the hostility of civilization created by science and technology in relation to man was emphasized. Such motives are felt in neo-Freudianism and existentialism.

After the fundamental scientific discoveries of the first half of the twentieth century, the mental atmosphere of the world has changed dramatically. "The kinetic energy of gases, Einstein’s mechanics, quantum field theory have radically changed the idea of ​​science that was common yesterday. This idea has not become less high – it has become more flexible. In place of the definitive, recent discoveries in many cases put forward infinitely possible; the place of the accurately measured is the notion of the eternal relativity of measure "(Mark Block).

Science is a process of cognition, which consists in reaching the boundary of nature and culture in both directions, to achieve truth. According to Hegel, through the reduction of objective to subjective concepts, science and philosophy seek to overcome their opposite. Bertrand Russell argued that modern science was constituted by two intellectual tools: the deductive method invented by the ancient Greeks, and the experimental method first widely used by Galileo. The deductive method allowed the Greeks to create mathematics, philosophy and logic. And logic has become a means of self-organization of culture.

At the beginning of the XX century. science has become a new idol of Western culture. Neo-positivists have developed basic criteria for determining whether knowledge is scientific. These criteria were characteristics of the research method. As proponents of empirical philosophy, neo-positivists determined the truth of knowledge through experiment and concrete fact. In Euro-American countries, science has become the main productive force of society. Achievements of science, inventions and technological innovations have become the drivers of economic development and material well-being of people.

The results of the success of science were such a branch of mechanical engineering as road transport. In 1898, Daimler’s first car was sold in Germany. In 1902, the first plane of the Wright brothers took to the air, which lasted in the sky for 57 seconds. And 11 years later, in 1913, a non-stop flight was made from London to Paris. In the same year in St. Petersburg made its first flight "Russian Knight" – a four-engine aircraft designed by Ukrainian engineer Igor Sikorsky. Before that, I. Sikorsky tested his first airplanes in the skies of Kyiv. And in the yard of his parents’ house for the first time in the world the helicopter designed by him rattled and came off the ground.

In the works of the Russian scientist M. Zhukovsky, a theoretical substantiation of aircraft construction was made, and the First World War accelerated the development of a new industry. The scientist laid the foundations of modern aerodynamics, created works on the theory of aviation, invented the wind tunnel and in 1904 founded the Aerodynamic Institute near Moscow.

Scientists have proved that the atom is not the smallest particle of matter, because the first microparticle was discovered – the electron. The English physicist E. Rutherford and the American F. Soddy developed a general theory of radioactivity. E. Rutherford is considered the founder of nuclear physics as a typically applied science. The Danish physicist N. Bohr corrected this theory by proving that electrons in their motion jump abruptly from one orbit to another, emitting a portion (quantum) of energy. Thus it was proved that the laws of classical Newtonian physics cannot be applied to the microworld.

Later it turned out that the laws of classical physics could not be applied in space either. New ideas about the relationship between time and space were developed by the German scientist A. Einstein in his fundamental science – the theory of relativity. In accordance with it, at a speed close to the speed of light, the passage of time slows down and the size of bodies decreases. That is, the time interval is transformed into a spatial volume. Therefore, each coordinate system must have its own clock, which would be in it, because the movement changes the rhythm of the clock. Thus A. Einstein in theory was able to combine space and time and embodied this in the formula according to which energy is equal to mass multiplied by the square of the speed of light. That is, the understanding of space, time and motion has changed: the body moves in four-dimensional space, the coordinates of which are length, width, depth and – time, so now it is no longer just space, but space-time …

At the same time, the first steps were taken in understanding the material foundations of thinking. Thanks to the scientific achievements of Mendel-Morgan and the discovery of the law of homologous series by M. Vavilov, a new science of the origin of organisms emerged. That is, the theory of heredity was created, which later became known as genetics.

The world recognition of the achievements of Russian scientists was expressed in the awarding of prestigious prizes and the awarding of honorary titles of members of foreign academies of sciences. Meanwhile, the Russian physiologist I. Pavlov discovered that the material physiological processes that occur in the cerebral cortex underlie human behavior. That is, he proved that the process of thinking is a special property of highly organized matter. Therefore, in 1904 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for research in the field of digestive physiology.

The heyday of physics and its practical application was based on the achievements of mathematics. K. Tsiolkovsky in 1903 published the work "Exploration of the world with the help of jet devices" thus beginning the history of rocket technology and laying the foundations of modern astronautics.

The outstanding Russian scientist VI Vernadsky received worldwide recognition for his work, which marked the beginning of a large number of new scientific directions in geochemistry, biochemistry, and radiology. He was the first to foresee the fantastic ability of a split atom personal narrative ideas for high school, but also warned of the great danger of careless handling. The scientist laid the foundations of modern ecology. In 1915, on the initiative of VI Vernadsky, a commission was set up to study Russia’s natural productive forces.

Russia’s scientific ties with other countries have grown sharply. Research and teaching work of many Russian scientists in foreign academies and universities have become commonplace.

Electronics emerged as a new scientific and technical branch at the beginning of the century. Improving radio communication equipment, the Englishman J. Fleming invented the diode (two-electrode lamp). It began to be used in radios. The development of the electrical industry was facilitated by the industrial use of electricity, the construction of power plants, and the development of telephone communication. The first AC power plant in Europe was built in Prague by Ukrainian scientist Prof. I. Pulyuy. He later launched a number of DC power plants in Austria-Hungary.

Children of the XX century became a television. In 1900, the Russian engineer O. Polumordvinov applied for a "light distributor for a device used to transmit images at a distance." It was one of the 25 mechanical telesystem projects proposed by the inventors of different countries at that time and the third project of power transmission of color images. However, some scientists consider the Russian V. Zvorykin to be the founder of television. According to others, the creator of the first TV set was Borys Grabovsky (son of a famous Ukrainian populist poet), who created the device in the 1920s. But even after the start of industrial production of televisions, hardly anyone could have predicted what an important place television will occupy in human life.

A new branch of knowledge – immunology was created by the Russian I. Mechnikov and the German P. Ehrlich, for which both received the Nobel Prize.

S. Freud, an Austrian psychologist, was the first to hypothesize the role of the subconscious as an important factor in social behavior. The theory of psychoanalysis formulated by S. Freud made a great impression on the art and literature not only of Austria but also of the whole world. It has become an instrument of artistic creativity.

In 1930, the American Norbert Wiener formulated the problem of "the behavior of an adjustable parameter." A year later, he and another scientist, Lee, patented a device that solved one of these problems. Technically, it was implemented only twenty years later. And then Wiener’s student, the genius Claude Shannon outlined the basics of information theory, which in combination with the work of N. Wiener gave the world cybernetics.

literature

T. Ladychenko. World History. ASK, Kyiv – 1999 V. Voronyansky. World history of the twentieth century. Parustm, Kharkiv – 2006.O. P. Ivanytska. Recent history of Europe and America. Vinnytsia – 2003 I. Kormich, VV Bagatsky. Culturology (history and theory of world culture of the twentieth century). Tutorial. Odyssey, Kharkiv – 2002 S. Virginsky, VF Hoteenkov. Essays on the history of science and technology 1870-1917. Enlightenment, Moscow – 1988. World history in ten volumes. Volume 7. Publishing house of social and economic literature. Moscow – 1960, p. 642.

10/12/2012

The period of formation of capitalism in Russia. Abstract

Nicholas I was succeeded by his eldest son Alexander II (1855-1881), who went down in Russian history as the liberating tsar.

The defeat of the Russian Empire in the Crimean War (1853-1856) and the national liberation movement of the enslaved peoples forced Alexander II to carry out reforms.